Pheromones and their effect on women’s mood and sexuality

Preliminary evidence suggests that exposure to androstadienone in women promotes attractiveness ratings of potential mates. In conclusion, some data indicate that 16-androstene pheromones, in particular androstadienone, play a beneficial role in women’s mood, focus and sexual response, and perhaps also in mate selection.

In contrast to previous literature, it has also been found that odours perceived from a female in follicular phase were actually more pleasant and sexier than odours perceived from that female in the luteal phase. Moreover, they discovered that the persistence of the menstrual cycle-dependent olfactory identification was extensive. However, the possibility of odours in the living environment overwhelming the menstrual cycle-dependent odours was not ruled out. Repeat exposure to the specific odours increases the threshold level of odour detection and therefore reduce the stimulation in humans.

There is a significant amount of research supporting body odour and sexual attraction in insects. The sex pheromones of the silkworm moths can elicit responses in the male antenna at concentrations of only a few hundred molecules per square centimeter. The general consensus among scientists is that, although body odor can affect attractiveness, humans don’t employ pheromones in the same way that other mammals or insects do. But recent evidence suggests that women do secrete a collection of chemicals that trigger various responses in men. These chemicals have been dubbed “copulins” because of their effects on sexual behavior.

Additionally, it has been proposed through research that male in a relationship would be more sensitive to their partner’s onset of ovulation-linked odour, and resultantly become desensitised after repeated exposure. On the other hand, non-paired males were continuously sensitive to the odour. This demonstrates the persistence of the odour as an evolutionary or adaptation process, which could ensure the offspring reproduction success of female by keeping constant exposure to males during their menstrual cycle. During this period, the most fertile females tend to have more extra-pair copulations. Evolution suggests this is an adaptation due to the physical changes inside the male body, although more research must be conducted to ensure these high levels of testosterone lead to reproductive behaviours.

Fluctuating asymmetry is a type of biological asymmetry, referring to the extent to which small random deviations occur from expected perfect symmetry in different populations of organisms. In humans, for example, fa can be demonstrated through the unequal sizes of bilateral features such as the eyes, ears and breasts.

A positive mood is known to facilitate women’s sexual response, and increased focus improves sexual satisfaction. Indeed, some studies showed a beneficial effect of androstadienone on sexual desire and arousal. However, these effects were dependent on the context of the experiment, for example, on the presence of a male attendant. Pheromones may also play a role in mate selection which is “disassortative” regarding the human leukocyte antigen -genotype.

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